Scientific writing has two goals: to share with your reader of new developments in a specific field, and also to address existing questions with new evidence.

Scientific writing has two goals: to share with your reader of new developments in a specific field, and also to address existing questions with new evidence.

Academic research paper sample that is writing

  • Academic writing within the sciences addresses new scientific developments and clarifications of scientific questions, most frequently in the form of a lab report, journal article, or literature review. The natural sciences include fields such as astronomy, biology, chemistry, and physics; the social sciences include anthropology, economics, linguistics, political science, sociology, and psychology.
  • Scientific papers commonly proceed with the IMRAD model, which stands for introduction, method, results, and discussion.
  • The introduction should describe elements such since the paper’s motivation, aim, problem, tested hypothesis, novel contributions, background materials, and a summary associated with the material that is subsequent.
  • The methods section should cover the writer’s assumptions, system model, simulation model, and gratification measures. For an original study, when, where, and just how the study was conducted, what materials were used, and who was included in the study groups should all be included.
  • In describing the results, the writer should include any empirical data, charts, and plots that convey the answer to the investigation question, and state whether the research hypothesis was proven or perhaps not proven.
  • The discussion section should analyze the outcome, state why they matter, contextualize them in terms of existing research, and suggest the implications for future research.
    • objectivity: The ability to perceive a subject without having to be impacted by personal biases or emotions.
    • bias: a opinion that is definite position on a topic.
    • lab report: A step-by-step explanation associated with materials, methods, data, results, analysis,
      conclusions, and references of an experiment.

    Scientific research papers report new discoveries, applying evidence to resolve questions and identify patterns. Writing in these disciplines often takes the form of peer-reviewed journal articles, literature reviews, grant proposals, case studies, and lab reports.

    For instance, in an environmental-science lab report, a student might analyze research leads to address or clarify a certain scientific development or question:

    “This study aims to identify levels of chlorine and phosphorus compounds in a three-mile stretch associated with the Columbia River, that is a place notable for salmon runs. An analysis of samples taken over a two-year period from various locations within the three-mile stretch revealed the persistence of high degrees of phosphorous and chlorine compounds. Within the study, we examine the connection between salmon population and the persistence of the compounds.”

    Scientific papers require significant amounts of preliminary work, including research, field work, and experimentation. Translating that work into writing could be difficult, but academic conventions provide a common template for communicating findings clearly and effectively.

    Writing in the sciences seeks to explain complex phenomena in clear, straightforward prose that minimizes bias that is authorial. In addition it includes components of classical argument, since scientific papers are anticipated to contextualize, analyze, and interpret the given information at hand.

    Precision of Language

    Lab reports, case studies, and other types of scientific writing must certanly be precise to be able to provide results which can be tested and reproduced.

    Make an effort to use simple words and sentences. Some students attempt to make their work sound more intellectual by making use of obscure words and long, elaborate sentences. In reality, the academy values precise words and detailed descriptions that are still understandable to a audience that is lay. Don’t make an effort to mimic the stereotype of dense, convoluted writing that is academic. Instead, write as simply and clearly as possible. Precision is a key component of clarity.

    Within the sciences, precision has two main applications: using concrete examples, and using clear language to describe them. Defining your parameters accurately is vital. Don’t generalize—provide exact times, measurements, quantities, and other relevant data whenever you can. Using precise, straightforward language to explain your work can be vital. This is simply not the right time or location for flashy vocabulary words or rhetorical flourishes. Style, however, is still important: currently talking about the sciences doesn’t give you a pass to create sloppily.


    The sciences strive for objectivity at every stage, from the experimental procedures to the language utilized in the write-up. Science writing must convince its audience that its offering an important, innovative contribution; as a result, this has an argumentative character. Combining objectivity and argumentative writing can be challenging. Scientific objectivity has two requirements: your hypothesis should be testable, and your results must be reproducible.

    The necessity of objectivity when you look at the sciences limits writers’ ability to use persuasive rhetoric. However, it is still required to make a strong case for the significance, relevance, and applicability of the research. Argumentative writing does have a place in scientific papers, but its role is limited. You may use language that is persuasive the abstract, introduction, literature review, discussion of results, and conclusion, but stay away from it whenever you describe your methods and present your results.


    Many students struggle to transition from 1 topic to a higher. Transitions are very well worth mastering—they would be the glue that holds your thinking together. Never assume that the reader will correctly guess the relationships between different subtopics; it really is your responsibility to describe these connections.

    Scientific Reasoning

    Keepin constantly your chosen model at heart whilst you write can really help ensure that your decisions and conclusions are logically consistent. Also, look out for logic traps such as for example faulty and bias causality. Researchers must take into account their biases that are own or personal preferences, prejudices, and preconceived notions. These can sometimes include bias that is cognitive thinking), cultural bias (the imposition of one’s own cultural standards upon research subjects), and sampling bias (the tendency during sample collection to include some members of the intended sample more readily than others).

    The body of a scientific paper generally consists of listed here sections: introduction (which could include a literature review), methods, results, and discussion.

    Learning Objectives

    Define each section of the IMRAD structure

    Key Takeaways

    Key Points

    • The IMRAD model could be the conventional approach that is structural academic writing into the sciences. The IMRAD model has four parts: introduction, methods, results, and discussion.
    • An overview is provided by the literature review of relevant research in your discipline. This may be included within the introduction, or it might stand as its own section.
    • The strategy section should explain the way you collected and evaluated your computer data.
    • In case your project conducts an experiment or an data that is original, you ought to include a separate section that reports your outcomes.
    • The discussion section should analyze your outcomes without reporting any findings that are new.
    • IMRAD: An acronym for Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion—the conventional structure of a paper that is scientific.
    • literature review: A synthesis associated with the critical points of current knowledge in a given field, which include significant findings along with theoretical and methodological contributions to a topic that is particular.
    • quantitative: Of research methods that depend on objective measurements and data analysis.
    • result: The discovery (or lack of discovery) that comes from the scientific method of investigation.
    • qualitative: Of research methods that induce an even more understanding that is subjective studying a subject’s defining qualities and character.

    The format for the body of the paper varies depending on the discipline, audience, and research methods in the natural and social sciences. Generally, the body associated with the paper contains an introduction, a methods section, results, and discussion. This technique is named IMRAD for short.

    These sections are often separate, essaywriter although sometimes the results are combined with the methods. However, many instructors prefer that students maintain these divisions, as they are still learning the conventions of writing inside their discipline. Most scientific journals prefer the IMRAD format, or variations of it, and also advise that writers designate the four elements with uniform title headings.

    Try to stay true to each section’s stated purpose. You can easily cite relevant sources into the methods, discussion, and conclusion sections, but again, save the discussion that is lengthy of sources for the introduction or literature review. The outcome section should describe your outcomes without discussing their significance, although the discussion section should analyze your outcomes without reporting any new findings. Think about each section as a training course served at a fancy dinner—don’t pour the soup into the salad or add leftover scraps from the entree to your dessert!

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